Magellan

Maps of Genetic Landscapes



Click here to download all known landscapes files or right click on the X to save the selected file


SystemDescription of landscapeReference Magellan landscape    File
Avian lysozyme (melting temperature) No selectively neutral pathway links the only two extant alleles Malcolm BA, Wilson KP, Matthews BW, Kirsch JF, Wilson AC: Ancestral lysozymes reconstructed, neutrality tested, and thermostability linked to hydrocarbon packing. Nature 1990, 345:86-89. Pubmed
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D. melanogaster visible mutant (productivity and male mating success) Epistasis and sexual selection may attenuate genetic load in natural populations. Higher-order epistasis observed. Whitlock MC, Bourguet D: Factors affecting the genetic load in Drosophila: synergistic epistasis and correlations among fitness components. Evolution 2000, 54:1654-1660. Pubmed

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E. coli dihydrofolate reductase mutants (in vitro enzymatic activity) Fitness landscape smoother than random; first study to offer quantitative definition of roughness Aita T, Husimi Y: Fitness spectrum among random mutants on Mt. Fuji-type fitness landscapes. J Theor Biol 1996, 182:469-485 Pubmed View Landscape O
E. coli isopropyl malate dehydrogenase mutants (growth rate) Essentially all epistasis for fitness arises in mapping from biochemistry to fitness Lunzer M, Miller SP, Felsheim R, Dean AM: The biochemical architecture of an ancient adaptive landscape. Science 2005, 310:499-501. Pubmed Miller SP, Lunzer M, Dean AM: Direct demonstration of an adaptive constraint. Science 2006, 314:458-461. Pubmed
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E. coli b-lactamase mutants (resistance against two antibiotics) Sign epistasis constrains the number of selectively accessible mutational trajectories to highest-fitness allele; adaptive trajectories are rarely reversed when environment changes Weinreich DM, Delaney NF, DePristo MA, Hartl DL: Darwinian evolution can follow only very few mutational paths to fitter proteins. Science 2006, 312:111-114. Pubmed
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E. coli b-lactamase mutants (resistance against two antibiotics) Sign epistasis constrains the number of selectively accessible mutational trajectories to highest-fitness allele; adaptive trajectories are rarely reversed when environment changes Tan L, Serene S, Chao HX, Gore J: Hidden randomness between fitness landscapes limits reverse evolution. Phys Rev Lett 2011,106:198102 Pubmed

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Solinaceae sequiterpine mutants (5-EA synthesis) Rugged landscape in which alternate catalytic specificities are often mutationally nearby Costanzo M, Baryshnikova A, Bellay J, Kim Y, Spear ED, Sevier CS, Ding H, Koh JLY, Toufighi K, Mostafavi S et al.: The genetic landscape of a cell. Science 2010, 327:425-431. Pubmed
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A. niger visible mutations (growth rate) Genetic recombination does little to speed adaptation; fitness landscapes have intermediate ruggedness Franke J, Klozer A, de Visser JAGM, Krug J: Evolutionary accessibility of mutational pathways. PLOS Comput Biol 2011,7:e1002134. Pubmed de Visser JAGM, Park S-C, Krug J: Exploring the effect of sex on empirical fitness landscapes. Am Nat 2009, 174:S15-S30. Pubmed

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P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase mutants in E. coli (resistance against an antimalarial drug) Clinical data consistent with evolutionary trajectory predicted from in vitro results Lozovsky ER, Chookajorn T, Brown KM, Imwong M, Shaw PJ, Kamchonwongpaisan S, Neafsey DE, Weinreich DM, Hartl DL: Stepwise acquisition of pyrimethamine resistance in the malaria parasite. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009, 106:12025-12030. Pubmed
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Mammalian glucocorticoid receptor mutants (cortisol binding) Epistasis renders evolutionary trajectories selectively irreversible Bridgham JT, Carroll SM, Thornton JW: Evolution of hormone- receptor complexity by molecular exploitation. Science 2007, 312:97-100. Pubmed View Landscape O
P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase mutants in S. cervisiae (resistance against two antimalarial drugs) Landscapes not well correlated across environments Brown KM, Costanzo MS, Xu W, Roy S, Lozovsky ER, Hartl DL: Compensatory mutations restore fitness during the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase. Mol Biol Evol 2010, 27:2682-2690. Pubmed Costanzo MS, Brown KM, Hartl DL: Fitness trade-offs in the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase and drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS One 2011, 6:e19636. Pubmed View Landscape O
S. cerevisiae visible mutations (growth rate) Epistasis is variable and genetic recombination does little to speed adaptation Hall DW, Agan M, Pope SC: Fitness epistasis among 6 biosynthtic loci in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cervisiae. J Hered 2010, 1010:S75-S84. Pubmed View Landscape O
HIV glycoprotein mutants (in vitro infectivity) Common, strong epistasis. Higher-order effects noted da Silva J, Coetzer M, Nedellec R, Pastore C, Mosier DE: Fitness Epistasis and Constraints on Adaptation in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protein Region. Genetics 2010, 185:293-303. Pubmed

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Metholobacterium extorquens beneficial mutations in novel metabolic pathway (growth rate) Negative pairwise epistasis among beneficial mutations Chou H-H, Chiu H-C, Delaney NF, Segre D, Marx CJ: Diminishing returns epistasis among beneficial mutations decelarates adaptation. Science 2011, 322:1190-1192. Pubmed
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E. coli beneficial mutations (growth rate). Negative pairwise epistasis among beneficial mutations Khan AI, Dinh DM, Schneider D, Lenski RE, Cooper TF: Negative epistasis between beneficial mutations in an evolving bacterial population. Science 2011, 332:1193-1196. Pubmed
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S. cerevisiae engineered mutations (growth rate). Strong, localised epistastis Bank C, Matuszewski S, Hietpas RT, Jensen JD: On the (un)predictability of a large intragenic fitness landscape. PNAS 2016, 113:14085-14090. Pubmed
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